Page 11 - ACHEMS 2012 PROGRAM

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Abstracts | 11
Abstracts are printed as submitted by the author(s)
#1
GIVAUDAN LECTURE: NEURAL CONTROL
OFAGGRESSION IN DROSOPHILA
Neural Control of Aggression in Drosophila
David J. Anderson
1
, Eric Hoopfer
1, 2
, Gerald M. Rubin
2
,
Xiaoqing Han
1
, Liming Wang
1
1
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology and
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Pasadena, CA, USA,
2
Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical
Institute Ashburn, VA, USA
Aggression between conspecific males is a social behavior that is
under pheromonal control. How these pheromones are interpreted
by the brain, and their role in regulating aggression, remains poorly
understood. Pheromones that can promote aggression have been
identified in both insects and mammals, but there are relatively few
systems in which the corresponding receptors have been identified,
and where genetic experiments to test their behavioral relevance are
possible.
Drosophila melanogaster
presents a powerful system in
which to investigate these issues. I will describe experiments that
have led to the identification of aggression pheromones in this
species, and insights into the chemosensory “logic” by which this
innate behavior is controlled. Systematic genetic screens to identify
the neural circuits that control aggressive behavior will also be
discussed. Acknowledgements: Howard Hughes Medical Institute
#3
SYMPOSIUM: THE FLAVOR OF THINGS TO
COME: EXPECTATION & THE PROCESSING
OF CHEMOSENSORY INFORMATION
Context-dependent patterns of neural activity in the human
olfactory system
Noam Sobel
1
, Anat Arzi
1
, Anton Plotkin
1
, Sagit Shushan
1
,
Tali Weiss
1
1
Weizmann Institute of Science/Neurobiology Rehovot, Israel
Smelling the same odorant can be accompanied by a significantly
different percept as a function of context and expectation.
Where in the brain does this modulation occur, and what are the
neurochemical underpinnings of this process, remains unknown.
Here I will review data from our and other labs that have used
functional neuroimaging to uncover context-dependent patterns of
activity in both primary and secondary olfactory cortex. Moreover,
I will present pilot data that examines whether expectation
modulates patterns of neural activity at the earliest stage of the
olfactory process, namely in the olfactory epithelium.
Acknowledgements: ERC Ideas 800250
#4
SYMPOSIUM: THE FLAVOR OF THINGS TO
COME: EXPECTATION & THE PROCESSING
OF CHEMOSENSORY INFORMATION
Rate and sniff-based odor coding in piriform cortex are
differentially modulated by behavioral context
Diego Restrepo
1
, Jennifer Whitesell
2
, Wilder Doucette
1
, David Gire
1
1
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Rocky Mountain
Taste and Smell Center and Neuroscience Program, School of
Medicine University of Colorado Aurora, CO, USA,
2
Department of
Physiology and Biophysics, Rocky Mountain Taste and Smell
Center and Neuroscience Program, School of Medicine University
of Colorado Aurora, CO, USA
We made extracellular recordings from the anterior piriform cortex
of mice trained to perform two olfactory tasks, one in which any
odor signaled the presence of a water reward (passive sensory task),
and one in which one odor (cumin aldehyde or room air) was
unrewarded (S-) and all other odors were rewarded (S+, active
sensory go/no-go task). We found that the rate of firing of both
single and multi-units recorded in the anterior piriform (integrated
over 2 seconds during odor exposure) did not often signal the
identity of the odors during the passive task (only 5% of 70 single
units and 1% of 176 multi units responded divergently to odors).
During the active task, however, piriform rate responses often
indicated the category of an odor, with 32% of units showing a
divergent response to S+ vs. S- odors (22% of 126 single units and
39% of 191 multi units), while still containing little information as
to the odor identity (5% of 320 units). When spike-timing was
considered relative to each sniff, however, this pattern changed,
with odor identity being coded by a number of cells (11% of single
units and 28% of multi-units) in the active task, as well as in the
passive task (13% of single units, 24% of multi-units coding odor
identity). Eliminating sniff-phase information by randomizing spike
times relative to sniffing nearly entirely eliminated odor identity
information, while categorical distinctions in the active task
remained intact. Taken together, our results suggest that
multiplexed coding occurs in the piriform cortex, with behaviorally
relevant categorical information largely transmitted through firing
rate, while odor identity is mostly coded in a sniff-phase dependent
manner. Acknowledgements: NIH DC00566 (DR), DC04657(DR)
and DC011980(DG)
#5
SYMPOSIUM: THE FLAVOR OF THINGS TO
COME: EXPECTATION & THE PROCESSING
OF CHEMOSENSORY INFORMATION
Top-down modulation of central taste and flavor
Dana M Small
1,2
1
The John B Pierce Laboratory New Haven, CT, USA,
2
Yale University New Haven, CT, USA
Perceptual experiences result when physiochemical stimuli are
transduced into nerve impulses and then elaborated and integrated
in the central nervous system to inform ongoing behavior.
A critical part of optimizing behavior is the formulation of
predictions and the development of beliefs and expectations about
the nature of stimuli and the outcome of behaviors. These beliefs
and expectations have a profound influence on perception and thus
behavior. This presentation will review recent work from our lab in
which we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the
influence of beliefs and expectations on central response to taste
Oral Abstracts
O R A L A B S T R A C T S