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#P130
POSTER SESSION III:
OLFACTION DEVELOPMENT & CNS;
HUMAN PSYCHOPHYSICS; TASTE PERIPHERY
Effect of Maternal Diet on the Fat Taste Transduction Pathway
of Male Offspring
Dane R. Hansen
1
, Malcolm Daniels
2
, Timothy A. Gilbertson
1
1
Utah State University Logan, UT, USA,
2
Kalamazoo College
Kalamazoo, MI, USA
Recent studies on the effects of maternal obesity have shown that
overnutrition in female rats during pregnancy and lactation can lead
to adverse physical conditions, such as diabetes or cardiovascular
disease, in the offspring. The peripheral taste system is involved in
the initial stages of nutrient intake and we have found that diet can
modulate expression levels of signaling molecules and ion channels
in the peripheral taste system which may eventually modulate food
choices. We have previously shown that linoleic acid activates the
fatty acid receptor GPR120 in mouse taste cells leading to
activation of PLCß2, an IP
3
-mediated rise in intracellular calcium
and activation of TRPM5 (Liu et al
. J Neurosci
31:8634, 2011).
In the present study, we investigated the changes in expression of
taste signaling molecules in 3-4 week old male pups born and
weaned to OM and S5B female rats fed a 60% (60kcal/100kcal) fat
or control diet, as well as male offspring from their female
littermates, using quantitative real time PCR. Expression of several
putative fatty acid receptive proteins, including CD36, GPR120 and
delayed rectifying K (DRK) channels, were assayed. Our results
show an increase in expression of CD36 and the primary fatty acid-
sensitive channel, KCNA5 (Kv1.5), which appears to be passed on
to the next generation. Alternatively, expression of the fatty acid-
insensitive channel, KCNC1 (Kv3.1), decreases in both
generations. GPR120 expression however, increases in rats born
and weaned on a high fat diet, then decreases in the next
generation. While preliminary, our results support the idea that
maternal nutrition can modulate specific chemosensory pathways
that underlie nutrient transduction. Acknowledgements: Supported
by NIH R01DK059611
#P131
Changed to Platform Presentations #13.5, page 12.
#P132
POSTER SESSION IV:
CHEMICAL SIGNALING & BEHAVIOR;
PSYCHOPHYSICS; CHEMOSENSATION & DISEASE;
OLFACTION PERIPHERY; TASTE PERIPHERY
Resistance to Aversion Conditioning to a Semiochemical
in the Rat
Nicholas C. Barry
1
, Donald B. Katz
1,2
1
Brandeis University Department of Neuroscience Waltham, MA,
USA,
2
Brandeis University Department of Psychology
Waltham, MA, USA
Semiochemicals are a class of small organic molecules that mediate
a wide variety of species-specific “innate” behaviors. While
semiochemicals and their attendant behavioral responses have been
extensively catalogued and characterized, little work has been done
to explore the qualitative differences between semiochemicals and
other odiferous compounds at the behavioral level. For instance, it
is not known whether or not semiochemicals are subject to the
same rules of associative learning as other odor cues. We therefore
tested the hypothesis that Long-Evans rats are impaired in their
ability to learn about the semiochemical responsible for the
acquisition of a food preference in rodents (carbon disulfide, CS
2
).
Here, we show that rats exhibited an impaired taste-potentiated
odor aversion to CS
2
but not to a neutral food odor (benzaldehyde,
p = 0.03, n = 16) despite showing normal learning to the co-
presented gustatory stimulus (p = 0.33, n = 16). Thus it appears that
CS
2
belongs to a qualitatively distinct category of odor compounds.
#P133
POSTER SESSION IV:
CHEMICAL SIGNALING & BEHAVIOR;
PSYCHOPHYSICS; CHEMOSENSATION & DISEASE;
OLFACTION PERIPHERY; TASTE PERIPHERY
Could sniffing variations improve olfactory perception?
Emmanuelle Courtiol, Belkacem Messaoudi, Marc Thevenet,
Samuel Garcia, Nathalie Buonviso
CNRS 5292 UMR 1028 CRNL UCBL team Olfaction from coding
to memory Lyon, France
Different authors have considered sniffing not only as the odorant
molecules vector but also as an integral part of the olfactory
percept (Mainland and Sobel, 2006). While sniffing has been shown
to be highly dynamic (Youngentob et al., 1987), the precise role of
its variations in frequency and flow rate in olfactory perception
remains the question to be answered. As first suggested by
Schoenfeld and Cleland (2005), variations would improve olfactory
capabilities by optimizing the deposition of odor molecules through
the olfactory epithelium (OE). To test this hypothesis, we needed to
record sniffing variations, using non-invasive method to not disturb
sniffing. For this purpose, we adapted the double discrimination task
developed by Uchida and Mainen(2003) in a whole-body
plethysmograph. Here, we present our preliminary results. They
suggest that 1) specific sniffing variations help in olfactory
perception and 2) sniffing parameters vary as a function of odorant
chemical properties. If our first results are confirmed, this would
place sniffing as a specific motor act similar to how eye movements
serve to allow acute visual perception. Acknowledgements: This
work was supported by a grant from “Agence Nationale de la
Recherche” (#ANR-07-NEURO-030).
#P134
POSTER SESSION IV:
CHEMICAL SIGNALING & BEHAVIOR;
PSYCHOPHYSICS; CHEMOSENSATION & DISEASE;
OLFACTION PERIPHERY; TASTE PERIPHERY
Diet-induced Obesity Differentially Disrupts Olfactory-based
Learning and Memory Paradigms in Wildtype and
“Super-smeller” Mice
David S. Gale
1
, Jessica Butler
2
, Jenah Aldridge
2
,
Chelsea Kramish
2
, Andrew R. Fadool
2
, James C. Fadool
4
,
Debra A. Fadool
2,3
1
Larry A. Ryle High School Union, KY, USA,
2
Department of
Biological Science, The Florida State University Tallahassee, FL,
USA,
3
Program in Neuroscience and Molecular Biophysics,
The Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA,
4
Mechanical Engineering Department, The Florida State
University Tallahassee, FL, USA
Gene-targeted deletion of a predominant
Shaker
channel in the
olfactory bulb (Kv1.3) results in a “Super-smeller” phenotype.
Since Kv1.3-/- mice also exhibit resistance to diet-induced obesity,
we hypothesized a correlation between the ability to detect odors
and body weight. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-/- (KO) mice were
maintained on a Purina control chow (CF, 13% fat), moderately-
high fat diet (MHF, 32% fat), or a high-fat diet (HF, 60% fat) for 6
months prior to being placed in a Knosys liquid-based olfactometer
Abstracts | 71
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