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signals when applied to human skin cells. Additionally,
pharmacological characterizations of the odorant-induced calcium
elevations revealed a substance-dependent involvement of a
cAMP or IP
3
signaling pathway. Moreover, the effects of long
term stimulation were analyzed concerning cell viability and
keratinocyte proliferation. Furthermore, using Microarray studies
and PCR analysis the expression of several olfactory receptors
could be demonstrated which might contribute to odor perception
of keratinocytes. Detailed investigation on the ability of
keratinocytes to detect and convey chemical stimuli is important
to understand how environmental influences are communicated
within the skin.
#P214
POSTER SESSION V:
TRIGEMINAL SYSTEM; BEHAVIOR
& PSYCHOPHYSICS; ODORANT
RECEPTORS & OLFACTION PERIPHERY
Characterization of ectopically expressed olfactory
receptors in human liver
Désirée Maßberg, Heike Benecke, Guenter Gisselmann,
Hanns Hatt
Ruhr University Bochum/ Cellphysiology Bochum, Germany
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are responsible for the detection and
processing of odor signals from the environment. Various studies
show that the expression of ORs is not only restricted to the
olfactory epithelium; they are also expressed in other tissues where
their function is often not well understood. Until now, several
studies demonstrate a functional expression and physiological role
in human sperm, gut and prostate. The present study deals with the
comprehensive identification and functional characterization of
ectopic OR expression in human liver cells. Using a combination of
Microarray, Next Generation Sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR
experiments, specifically expressed ORs were identified that are
up- or downregulated in healthy and diseased human liver tissue.
In addition, Calcium Imaging experiments demonstrated that a
citrus odorant evokes a cAMP-dependent intracellular Ca
2+
increase
in a human hepatocyte cell line. These results correlate with the
detection of specific ORs on mRNA and protein level. Therefore,
we postulate that ORs also play a functional role in liver tissue.
These data constitute an essential contribution to the understanding
of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the liver, and
will provide new insights for clinical applications.
#P215
POSTER SESSION V:
TRIGEMINAL SYSTEM; BEHAVIOR
& PSYCHOPHYSICS; ODORANT
RECEPTORS & OLFACTION PERIPHERY
Ectopically expressed olfactory receptors in primary human
skeletal muscle cells
Markus Osterloh
1
, Mario Böhm
1
, Frank Entschladen
2
, Hanns Hatt
1
1
Ruhr University Bochum Bochum, Germany,
2
Witten/Herdecke
University Witten, Germany
Olfactory receptors (ORs) comprise the largest group of G protein-
coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are responsible for the recognition
of different odorant molecules. For many years ORs were believed
to be exclusively expressed in the olfactory epithelium (OE).
However, recently several studies demonstrated an ectopic
expression of ORs in different tissues and cells throughout the
body. Nevertheless, the physiological relevance in most of these
tissues remains poorly understood, except for a few examples like
spermatozoa and prostate cells. Using next generation sequencing
and microarray approaches combined with real time qPCR we
could identify several ORs expressed in primary human skeletal
muscle cells (hSkMC). We also observed that the expression levels
of some ORs changed according to the differentiation stage. In
addition, we could also detect members of the transient receptor
potential (TRP) channel family. In calcium imaging experiments,
hSkMCs responded to stimulation with odorants by showing an
intracellular calcium increase in a concentration dependent manner.
Interestingly, the responses were also dependent on the
developmental stage of the cells showing a significant difference
between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Furthermore, we
could demonstrate an effect of odorant stimulation on the migration
activity of hSkMCs.
#P216
POSTER SESSION VI:
OLFACTION CNS; TASTE PERIPHERY &
CNS; MULTIMODAL RECEPTION
The olfactory system of closely related wild-bee species -
neuroanatomical correlations to social organization and
floral preference
Christina Kelber, Wolfgang Roessler
University of Wuerzburg/ Department of Behavioral Physiology
and Sociobiology Wuerzburg, Germany
Among Hymenoptera, many ecologically successful species
evolved a eusocial lifestyle. However, there are also many solitary
wasp and bee species. Several studies emphasize that eusocial
Hymenoptera - like honeybees and ants - possess a complex brain
including a high number of functional units (glomeruli) in the
antennal lobe and large mushroom body calyces. Brain complexity
may have evolved as the result of a eusocial lifestyle or in response
to other selective pressures and, therefore, be a precondition for the
evolution of eusociality. We analyzed specific neuroanatomical
traits in selected wild-bee species and correlated the results with
both social lifestyle and floral preference. We investigated halictid
bee species (Halictidae) with different grades of sociality, but
polylectic floral preference and solitary polylectic and oligolectic
mason bee species (
Osmia
). We employed confocal microscopy
scanning and 3D-reconstruction for quantitative analyses and
focused on the antennal-lobe structure (number and size of
glomeruli). In halictid bees, we found between 156 and 161
glomeruli in
Lasioglossum
species and between 171 and 183
glomeruli in
Halictus
species. No significant difference in
glomerular number between solitary and eusocial species was
found. The investigated
Osmia
species showed a significantly
lower number of glomeruli (100-137 glomeruli) and a large
interspecies variance. The strictly oligolectic species
Osmia adunca
showed the lowest number of glomeruli, while all polylectic
Osmia
species showed larger glomerular numbers. Our results give
first hints that a more complex antennal-lobe structure is not the
result of a eusocial lifestyle. Furthermore, the results indicate
that floral preference seems to have a larger impact on the antennal-
lobe complexity than social lifestyle. Acknowledgements:
DFG KE-1701 1/1
Abstracts | 99
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